How Metacognition Might Have Saved Tesco’s Bacon

tesco_2584551bThis week, the UK supermarket Tesco has landed itself in trouble over providing incorrect figures of its profits to the city (the stock markets). Now questions are being asked about whether Tesco bosses were being deliberately misleading, or instead incompetent. From a psychological perspective, I believe the answer lies in a factor named ‘metacognition’.

Some of you who follow me on Facebook or other social media channels will know that I have been making a bit of noise recently relating to this topic. I’ve been publishing my latest metacognitive awareness score, which has been calculated through a smartphone app, which I have been working on during the last few months. With this blog post, I intend to answer the questions of what it is about and why you should want to download it.

So, what is metacognition? Metacognition means knowing about what you know. We are defining it as an awareness of ones own knowledge and mental processes. A higher metacognitive awareness will make you think better. It will help you to be more effective in how you handle your knowledge and your learning.

The app we have produced is based upon several years worth of research conducted at Bangor University. Through empirical studies, it was shown that this metacognitive awareness could be increased through confidence based testing. Confidence based testing is a secondary component attached to a question, wherein the participant not only gives an answer, but also an indication of their surety of that answer. As a result of these studies, we have developed the Cognaware app to replicate the study methodology for individual smart phone users.

How sure are you?

How sure are you?

This general knowledge quiz will reward confidence in correct answers, as well the users ability to correctly identify when they are guessing. On the flip side, it will punish users who are confident in an incorrect answer, while giving only a token point for users getting a correct answer thought to be a guess. The responses are then analysed, using signal detection theory, to give you your metacognitive index, or in other words, your ability to discriminate between what you know and what you don’t.

At this point, you may understand everything I just said, or you may find it all awfully complicated. Instead of worrying about the ins and outs of it, let me tell you why metacognitive awareness is important.

Have you ever listened to somebody harp on about something, when they don’t actually know what they’re talking about? Politicians and other people trying to save face do it all the time. Either these people have no integrity, or they have a poor metacognitive awareness, although in reality it is probably an interaction of them both.

Consider the way we handle knowledge, whether it be in business or higher education. Working with accurate facts and knowledge is the difference between a cutting edge success and a tragic failure. When it comes to hard line reality, sometimes saying ‘I think’, just won’t do. In the aftermath of the Iraq war, the evidence (i.e. the absence of weapons of mass destruction) revealed that the grounds for the invasion of Iraq were based on a hunch. When I listen to political debates, I am becoming increasingly aware of the absence of sources being used to back up politicians arguments. We have seen some tragic and foolish decisions made off heuristic knowledge.

Bringing it back to Tesco, I believe that if more people within the senior ranks of the organisation had a higher metacognitive awareness, somebody would have blown the whistle before it came to this. Either through an increased conviction in recognizing discrepancies, or through being more willing to face the reality that the city would notice a £250 million deficit, that ability to discriminate between hopeful ‘I think’s’ and reality might have saved four senior executives their jobs.

Now this isn’t a miracle pill. It’s not a get rich quick scheme. It’s an evidence based app which will train you in a wise thought pattern. But now you are aware of metacognition, and the role it plays, and so I ask you: is this a skill you want to work on? If it is, a daily quiz on Cognaware is a fun way to do that. Remember, it’s not what you know, it’s what you know about what you know.

Cognaware is available on the Apple and Google Play stores. For more information, including learning about the peer reviewed literature that supports metacognition, please see


SAFMEDS Cards and Metacognition

During the last year of my education, I have spent some time, and had some discussions around the topic of metacognition. For the last few years, my supervisor, Jesse Martin, has been overseeing research to measure to what extent metacognition can be taught to an individual.

To answer the question of what metacognition actually is, I will explain. Cognition means thinking, while ‘meta’ means it concerns itself. metacognition may be defined as awareness of your knowledge and thought processes. One who has a high metacognitive awareness should be able to work more effectively due to a more accurate perspective of their own levels of knowledge and also their own abilities to deal with certain challenges [1].

The work which has been done at Bangor is centred on a confidence based quiz. Participants first answer the question, and then they answer whether they were sure or guessing. In doing so, participants appear to be learning to discriminate over their own knowledge. After taking these quizzes for a number of weeks, participant metacognitive index (a number based on A’ calculations) was seen to rise.

I would like to talk about one of the applications of this theory, both in terms of research and how I used it to support my own exam preparation. One of the students at Bangor linked metacognition with a school of thought known as precision teaching

I actually accrued quite a lot of cards!

I actually accrued quite a lot of cards!

. This is an approach to education, largely rooted in behaviourism. It is the idea of using quick fire techniques to improve fluency of recall within the rote learned components of education. The particular application which I shall now discuss concerns SAFMEDS cards. SAFMEDS (Say All Fast [for a] Minute Every Day Shuffled) cards involve taking brief snippets of content, and quickly cycling through them, and testing oneself for being able to correctly recall an answer on the reverse of the card.

One key aspect concerning the use of SAFMEDs is that the user needs to discriminate quickly what they know and what they don’t know, so they can have as many opportunities inside of one minute as possible to recall correct answers. It was the hypothesis of this study, that using SAFMEDs would also build metacognitive awareness [2]. Indeed this hypothesis was supported, with the previously mentioned A’ scores significantly rising for SAFMEDS users, compared with the group. It has been argued, therefore, that the use of SAFMEDS cards are an effective means of fostering self-monitoring and instilling metacognitive activity.

I used SAFMEDS myself this year to help me prepare for my final exams. Like clockwork, they worked exactly as expected. I found myself quickly able to memorise key terms, and it was motivating to be able to chart my progress. They also helped me keep the breadth of topics I needed to learn within my awareness, so that I could manage my time and select the right areas to study more deeply.

It is a shame that I can’t end this by sharing what it did to my own metacognitive awareness. Unfortunately, I didn’t think to take a baseline or a post-intervention test. However we have been working on something which we will be unveiling soon, with which you can train and measure your own metacognitive awareness.

[1] – See Cognaware: Supporting Evidence

[2] – Francis, K. (2013). [Effect of Monitoring on Metacognitive Performance Using SAFMEDS Intervention]. Unpublished Raw Data.

Second Semester So Far

I’ve talked a lot about twitter recently. A lot about twitter and something about George A. Kelly. But what I want to do here is have a brief analysis of what the wiki and the tweeting is doing for my revision. I’ll mainly be considering the wiki.

Lectures are passive, and my present logic is that to benefit the most, I need to write the lecture content up in the wiki in my own words, using the textbook for extra reading. But it’s still a struggle to do that properly.

As far as time goes, I struggle to do things that seem to have no application, and so much of the time I am looking at the content of the lecture slides, reading it up in the book, and then suddenly finding that what I see in the lecture slide is the exact summary I would have written from the book. I don’t grow from just reading the slides, and I waste too much time using the slides, book and wiki together.

The principle of metacognition is thinking about thinking. It’s application to learning is that it is foolish to learn what we already know.

The topics in the slides are really well explained, and if they were my own notes, I would have a great understanding of them.

Well this is how I see it. The slides contain:

  • Simple definitions
  • Explanations
  • Evidence

What I should do first is quickly trawl the slides, produce my own notes, and then use the book for the things I need further information on. It’s time to stop wasting time trailing through the slides followed by the book. And one other thing, if you write an essay or a piece of work on a topic, that is just as good as a revision tool or a set of notes…